A number of domesticated beasts are also associated with fairies, showing how often their society imitated and paralleled our own. Sometimes this livestock was imagined as being its normal size, so as to match human sized fairies; on other occasions the creatures were diminutive, just like their supernatural owners. Some of the creatures were larger than their counterparts in the human world, enhancing the fear associated with their unearthly origins.
We find regular reference to:
- goats– I have discussed fairy goats before. They were very well known in Wales, but the Cornish were also aware of the link. For example, William Bottrell recorded that wherever goats preferred to graze would be certain to be places frequented by the pixies. In the Highlands of Perthshire it was believed that the fairies lived on goat’s milk.
- horses– fairies liked hunting and processing and for this horses were nearly essential. In the poem Sir Orfeo the fairy king arrives to seduce the knight’s wife with his ladies and retainers, “Al on snowe white stedes.” In the Scottish poem Young Tamlane the fairies process on black, brown and white mounts whilst in Thomas of Erceldoune the fairy queen appears astride a ‘palfrey.’ We also hear of Welsh fairies hunting on grey horses and- from an old woman in the Vale of Neath in 1827- an account of fairies seen riding white horses ‘no bigger than dogs.’ These Welsh fairies were said to ride in the air, never coming to ground. Appropriately, fairy horses were renowned for their swiftness. In contrast to these generally small and pale-hued steeds, a horse that collected a midwife to attend a fairy labour near Tavistock was coal black with eyes ‘like balls of fire’… John Campbell in Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands suggested that the fairy horses might not be real, at all, but just enchanted ragweed stems, on which fairies so often flew through the air like broomsticks. This might indeed have been the case in the north of Scotland, at least.
- deer– in the Highlands fairies were especially associated with the red deer and, indeed, it was believed by some that they were their only cattle. It was also alleged that fairy women could transform themselves into deer and might be captured in this guise.
- dogs- for the fairies’ great sport of hunting, hounds are required. Searching to recover his wife, Sir Orfeo meets the king of fairy riding out “with hundes berkyng.” Likewise in Thomas of Erceldoune the fairy queen is met with “hir greyehundes” and “Hir raches.” The latter are ‘rachets’- specially bred hunting dogs. The Cwn Annwn (roughly, the hounds of hell) of Welsh legend were ban dogs employed for the pursuit of the souls of those who had died either unbaptised or unshriven. They dashed through the air on stormy nights, terrifying the mortals below. More dainty, perhaps, were the “milk white hounds” that accompanied the elfin ladies of the lakes. In stark contrast, the ‘people of peace’ of the Scottish Highlands possessed dogs the size of bullocks, which were dark green (though paling towards their feet). These hounds’ tails either curled tightly on their backs or appeared flat, even plaited. They were kept as ferocious watchdogs for the fairy knolls and were said to move by gliding in straight lines.
- cats: fairy felines were apparently the size of human dogs, black with a white spot on their chests, their backs constantly arched and their fur bristled.
- cattle– Irish fairy cattle are famed for their distinctive appearance: they are white with red ears. In Britain, though, such distinctive characteristics are not so regularly recorded, but in Wales the “comely milk white kine” were definitely famed. These were the gwartheg y llyn, the ‘lake cattle’, that were frequently brought to marriages with human males by the beautiful and mesmerising lake maidens. Alternatively they might mingle and interbreed naturally with human herds (and are clearly envisaged as being of normal proportions and appearance). If (when) the fairy wife is later rejected or insulted, her departure will also inevitably mean the departure of the fairy beasts from her husband’s herd. The same is bound to occur if the human farmer tries to slaughter the fairy cattle, as this too will be interpreted as demonstrating a want of respect for the owners/ donors. In the Scottish Highlands fairy cattle typically were dun coloured and hornless, but on Skye they were red speckled and could cross the sea.
- other livestock– In British goblins Wirt Sikes says that the Welsh fairies may appear in the shape of sheep, poultry and pigs. It is not wholly clear from his account whether these are fairy animals or fairies in the form of animals. Whatever the exact situation, these creatures were often reported as being seen flying or rising from pastures up into the sky.
In summary, there seem to be a number of common features to fairy animals. They are very commonly pure white- a sure sign of their supernatural nature- and most commonly airborne (another clear indication of their enchanted nature). Although in many respects, their behaviour was identical with that of normal farm beasts, they were prone to appear and disappear unpredictably. As with all fairy gifts, poor treatment of them guarantees their loss.