I have just finished reading Professor Ronald Hutton’s new book The witch. As is obvious from the title, this is an in-depth study of witches and witchcraft from ancient times up until the close of the witch trials in the seventeenth century. In fact, it is more of a work of historiography, surveying the research and theories of other scholars, than a pure history of the subject. Chapter 8 concerns witches and fairies- hence my interest; I have written on this before myself on this about the relationship between fairies and witches and in my book British fairies.
Hutton considers the links between local magicians and healers and the fairies; he also gives an outline of the evolution of British fairy lore as crystallised in its fullest form in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. It is his sketch of the development of the mythology that I wish to examine in this posting.
Medieval fairy faith
Hutton proposes that there were seven key elements to British fairy belief in the middle ages. These all seem to have been in place by 1200 at the latest, but it is reasonable to suppose that they originate a good deal earlier, perhaps even pre-Conquest (see for this my posting on Anglo-Saxon elves). The main twelfth century sources are a verse history of Britain composed by Layamon (c.1200), chronicles written by Ralph of Coggeshall (died 1200) and William of Newbury (1136-98- and who is also called Newburgh and Newbridge), De nugis curialium by Walter Map (1140- 1210), the tour of Wales by Gerald of Wales (1146-1223) and Otia Imperialia by Gervase of Tilbury (1150-1228). These contain various ‘fairy’ stories and accounts of recent supernatural events and encounters.
These key fairy-lore features are as follows:
- the fairies inhabit a parallel world- several stories illustrate this. The underground realm of fairyland is visited in the stories of Elidyr and King Herla whilst the Green Children of Woolpit stray into rural Suffolk from there. A notable feature that is several times mentioned is the curious half-light that prevails in faery; there is neither sun nor moon, but a dim luminosity like torchlight;
- they have the ability to enter our world and steal children– Ralph of Coggeshall’s story of ‘Malekin’ demonstrates this. She was stolen by the fairies from a cornfield where her mother was working during harvest; rather like a ghost she could contact the human world but not return to it;
- there are portals to faery- in the account of Elidyr he enters fairyland by a river bank; in King Herla it is a cave in a cliff; the Green Children follow a long tunnel that leads them out of ‘St Martin’s Land.’ William of Newbury locates a fairy feast under a barrow, a quintessential fairy locale;
- beautiful fairy women– they dance at night and will sometimes wed humans– but always subject to conditions that are inevitably broken. The story of Wild Edric epitomises the irresistible beauty of the fairy bride and her unavoidable loss (see later). In Layamon’s Brut the lovely elf queen Argante takes Arthur to Avalon after the battle of Camlann to heal and care for him. Readers may also recall the ‘aelfscyne’ or elf-bright women of Saxon myth I have described before in my post on Anglo-Saxon elves. Lastly, there is evidence suggesting that the fairy women could have their own independent sexuality (or be loose and lustful to medieval minds) as well as being beautiful. There are menacing accounts in thirteenth century sources of elf women visiting men at night as succubi. The sister of the Green Children grew up, it was said, to have quite lax morals- an indicator perhaps of her fairy birth (although one might equally suggest that her conduct was a reaction to the shock of becoming an orphan and a refugee);
- green colour- the Green Children at Woolpit emerged into this Middle Earth green tinged and would only eat green beans at first, although their colour faded as their diet changed;
- the fairies can bless or torment humans- according to the historian Layamon, King Arthur was blessed by elves at his birth (our earliest fairy godmother account). Conversely, Gervase of Tilbury tells of a fairy horn stolen by a hunter in Gloucestershire. It brings with it bad luck and the man is executed for his theft; and,
- they may live in human homes- Gervase of Tilbury tells of the ‘portunes’ who closely resemble brownies. They work on farms, doing any work required however hard; they serve the household but never injure them and, at nights, they enter the house and cook frogs on the fire.
These are Hutton’s seven core aspects of British fairylore. From the medieval accounts I think we can add at least eleven more:
- time passes differently in faery- when King Herla returns to the human world he is warned not to step from his horse until a small dog given to him has leaped to the ground. A couple of his retinue forget this and dismount from their steeds; they instantly crumble to dust for he has been away several hundred years, although to him it seemed but hours. It is said that he and his company are still riding, waiting for the dog to jump down. The story of Malekin also has a typical feature: she has been seven years in fairyland, she says, and must remain another seven before she may return home. Seven is a common magic number in faery measurements of time. A delay of a year between events is also seen. King Herla celebrates his wedding and, a year later, visits the king of faery to celebrate his. The same commitment to meet a year later also appears in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight;
- feasting– is a major fairy fairy pastime, as in the stories of King Herla and the account by William of Newbury of a fairy cup stolen from a banquet under a barrow;
- mischief- although generally benevolent, the portunes do like to play tricks on humans by leading their horses into ponds when they are out riding at night. A thirteenth century sermon also speaks of ‘all such ben led at night with gobelyn and erreth hither and thither’.
- diminutive size– clearly some fairies, such as the fairy maidens and wives, approach normal stature; nonetheless, the portunes are said to be only a half inch high (probably a mistake for half a foot/ 6″) and the fairies in King Herla are described as apes, pygmies, dwarves and half human size. The fairies met by Elidyr are likewise small, but by contrast the Green Children, the fairies under the barrow seen in William of Newbury’s story and the bearers of the fairy horn in Gloucestershire are all of normal proportions. At the other extreme, indeed, the fairy maidens seen dancing by Wild Edric described as being taller and larger than human women;
- marriage subject to conditions- as mentioned above, fairy maids will wed human husbands, but there is always a catch. In Wild Edric the hero was warned never to mention her sisters; of course, he did, and she promptly left. Walter Map described the experience of Gwestin of Gwestiniog, who captured a fairy wife at Llangorse Lake in the Brecon Beacons (De nugis II, xi). She lived with him and raised a family, but he was told never to strike her with a bridle. Eventually, accidentally, this happened and forthwith she and all but one of the children disappeared. This is the first of many such stories from Wales;
- warnings– Gervase describes the ‘grant’ which is a foal-like creature which warns villagers of fire;
- honesty & keeping promises is vital in fairy morality. This an element in King Herla (and in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight); it is also seen in the story of Elidyr, who reported that the supernatural people he met never took oaths and abhorred lying;
- fairies disappear at will (as in the story of King Herla) and generally remain invisible to normal human sight (as with the changeling Malekin). This concealment can be overcome in two ways. A person might apply a magic ointment. Gervase of Tilbury mentions this in an account of the dracae water spirits of Brittany. It is a regular feature of later British fairylore and may either have been imported from Brittany or may share the same ‘Celtic’ origin. Alternatively, it may be possible to obtain the second sight through contact with a ‘seer.’ This again is a feature of later lore (see Evans-Wentz for example) but in the life of the hermit Bartholomew who lived on the island of Farne in the late twelfth century the saint is told that he may see swarms of demons by placing his foot upon that of another, so that it seems this technique had a long pedigree;
- foreknowledge of events- this supernatural power is mentioned in the story of King Herla;
- a liking of dairy products- in Gerald of Wales’ account of Elidyr’s childhood visits to fairyland, he mentions their vegetarian diet and their preference for junkets. This later became a significant theme in Elizabethan literature; and,
- they may need human help, especially at child birth. Gervase of Tilbury’s story of the Breton dracae also features the theme of the midwife to the fairies, later a regular element in many fairytales.
All of these characteristics will be recognised in later fairylore and all have been described in previous postings and in my book British fairies. However, Ronald Hutton suggests that what we would recognise as the British fairy tradition didn’t fully emerge for another 300 years or so, and that it depended upon the assimilation of continental motifs. He suggests two in particular that were late arrivals in British folk belief:
- the changeling idea- the idea of substituting a fairy for a human child is, he proposes, an import from Northern Europe. As we have seen with the story of Malekin, the risk of fairies stealing human children was already well established in Britain at an early date, as was a close affinity between fairies and children- witness the Green Children or the story of Elidyr. It is not entirely clear then whether we simply lack the evidence of the substituted stock or aged elf or whether this was indeed a last detail borrowed from abroad and added to the established tradition;
- visiting houses and dairies at night, rewarding the clean and neat and punishing the dirty. Hutton believes that this derives from continental myths of the good company of ‘the lady’ who could bring blessings to homes. He may be right in this, but again many of the elements for this belief were plainly already in place- the presence of portunes in some homes and the liking for milk and cream- so that it needed little external influence for the ideas to coalesce; and,
- fay maids– Hutton proposes that these beings were inspired by literature. It is quite true that chivalric romance is full of magical, semi-human women such as Morgan le Fay, but as we have already seen they were well known to British audiences at a much earlier date and may have contributed to Arthurian legend just as well as being derived from it.
On the evidence I have set out, I am inclined to think that the British fairy tradition evolved in recognisable form a good deal earlier than Professor Hutton suggested, although it seems incontestable that continental influences may have helped to refine and emphasise certain themes.