Joseph Noel Paton, Puck and the fairies
Although the ability to shape-shift is often reckoned to be a standard fairy attribute, it is actually very rare amongst the fairies of Britain. Part of the reason for its prominence in popular imaginings is that it has one very well-known practitioner.
Glamour & invisibility
We ought perhaps to start with some definition of terms. We’re not talking here about the fairies’ power of invisibility. This appears to be pretty much universal, for British fairies at least; they can all vanish at will. Secondly, shape shifting should not be confused with the regular fairy use of ‘glamour’ whereby magic can conceal the real identity of supernatural beings. A good example arises in the stories of midwives taken at night to grand mansions to attend rich ladies in their childbirth. It’s only when the midwife accidentally touches some fairy ointment to her eye that her vision penetrates through the illusion to see that she’s really surrounded by misshapen elves in a cave.
Thirdly, by shape-shifting I’m not really concerned so much with the ability of spriggans to change their size. An example of this comes from the Cornish story ‘Cherry of Zennor.’ Cherry is approached by a gentleman to work for him; they reach his home after a long and slightly mysterious journey, which appears to be a passage into fairyland. All goes well until Cherry looks into a well where she sees many tiny fairies dancing- and her new master shrunk to the same size. Fascinating as this is, in this posting I’m really only interested in a complete change of form.
Hobgoblins and sweet Puck
In 1584 in his horror novella Beware the cat, William Baldwin wrote what’s probably our first clear statement of the fairies’ shape-shifting habits:
“I have read that … the ayry spirits which wee call Demones, of which kinde are Incubus and Succubus, Robin Good Fellow the Fairy and Goblins, which the Miners call Telchines, could at their pleasure take upon them any other sortes.”
Robin Goodfellow is our particular interest here. Also called Puck, this hobgoblin is the consummate master of transformation, as immortalised in Midsummer night’s dream, Act II, scene 1 in which Puck boasts to a fairy about his pranks:
“When I a fat and bean-fed horse beguile,/ Neighing in likeness of a filly foal:/ And sometime lurk I in a gossip’s bowl,/ In the very likeness of a roasted crab;/ And when she drinks, against her lips I bob/ And on her withered dewlap pour the ale./ The wisest aunt, telling the saddest tale,/ Sometimes for three foot stool mistaketh me;/ Then slip I from her bum, down topples she…”
All Shakespeare does here is give immortal form to the traditional character of Puck. Other texts of about the same time give other examples of his tricks- these are The life of Robin Goodfellow, his mad pranks and merry jests (1628) and a poem called The pranks of Puck that has been attributed to Ben Jonson. In these works Robin is endowed with his shape-shifting power by his fairy father Oberon, who tells him:
“Thou hast the power to change thy shape/ To horse, to hog, to dog, to ape./ Transformed thus, by any meanes,/ See none thou harm’st but knaves and queanes.”
In the course of the stories Puck dispenses rough justice and has simple slapstick fun in a huge variety of forms- for example:
- livestock such as a horse, a dog and an ox,
- wild animals including a fox, a hare, a bear and a frog;
- birds, including a crow, an owl and a raven;
- various spirits including a will of the wisp and a ghost; and,
- various people, including a cripple, a soldier, a young maid and fiddler.
Fairies as birds
There are two brief mentions of British fays who can transform to birds. The hyter sprite, an obscure fairy of East Anglia, can also appear in the shape of a sandmartin and, from the Cornish story of The fairy dwelling on Silena Moor we learn that pixy abductee Grace Hutchens is more reconciled to her captivity by the fact that she can transform into a small bird and fly near to her former lover, Mr Noy. It’s perhaps also worth observing that these fairies’ wings are acquired by transformation, here, as they evidently don’t normally possess them…
There’s a catch to the Cornish pixies’ ability to transform, though. They can only change into birds and it seems each transformation shrinks the sprite so that eventually they dwindle away to virtually nothing.
Meeting the kelpie by Camelid on DeviantArt
Evidently Puck can become whatever he likes. Most other fairies are strictly limited in what they can become. The Scottish kelpie/ each uisge may appear either in male or horse form. In the former guise, he is a handsome young man who seeks to seduce young women and lure them to their doom; the lucky ones spot the telltale signs of his real nature- the sand or water weed caught in his hair, and make their escape. The others are carried off into a loch or the sea and drowned.
Conclusion and further reading
To finish, we can see how rare the power to change form is. In England it’s really just limited to Puck, although we have to note the interesting fact that a couple of the South Western fairies do have some special powers.