Joseph Noel Paton, Oberon & Titania
In a previous posting I questioned the need for faery royalty, but here I accept the existence of the institution (in literature at least) and discuss some individual kings.
Most readers will be familiar with the name of Oberon as the king of Faerie. Shakespeare is responsible for this, but he did not invent the name. Rather he borrowed it from the medieval French romance Huon of Bordeaux. In that story Oberon / Auberon appears as a magical fairy king. Auberon is a french name, an affectionate diminutive form of Aubert, which in turn is derived the Frankish/ Germanic Alberic (in Anglo-Saxon Aelfric), which means no more than ‘elf rule.’ In other words, this is not really a name at all, it’s just a job title- ‘King of the Elves.’
Oberon is now accepted as the archetypal fairy king and, it’s true, he clearly has Old English roots, but he’s come to us by way of literature and is not really a true folklore figure. For the British, though, this doesn’t matter because they’ve had their own fairy king all along, whose name is Arthur.
“In this world he changed his life”
King Arthur long ago ceased to be merely a Dark Age hero or monarch of the Round Table: he was transformed into a supernatural being and a resident of Faery.
After Arthur was mortally wounded fighting his nephew Mordred he was carried away to be healed by the fay maidens Morgan and Nimue. From this myth of fairy salvation, a closer link to fairy nature evolved. Layamon, in his Brut of around 1190, recorded that:
“The British believe yet that he is alive,
And dwells in Avalon with the fairest of all the elves.”
Holinshed, in 1578, told much the same story. People believed that “King Arthur was not dead, but carried away by the fairies into some pleasant place…” (Chronicles, Book V, c.14). In the romance of Huon of Bordeaux Arthur even succeeds King Oberon to the fairy throne.
Lydgate in the fifteenth century developed the situation even further, though, and has the fairy king return to rule us (The fall of princes, Book VIII, c.24):
“He is a king y-crowned in Faërie,
With his sceptre and pall, and with his regalty,
Shalle resort, as lord and sovereigne,
Out of Faërie and reign in Bretaine,
And repair again the oulde Rounde table.”
By being taken to Faery, Arthur (perhaps by consuming the food and drink there) has become immortal himself and now awaits the call to return to save his former kingdom.
In fact, fairy glamour now envelopes him completely. According to the romance Brut de la Montaigne, all fairy haunted places belong to Arthur (Verses XXX & XXXI), whilst in Gerbert’s Romance of Percival, the ‘siege perilous’ at the Round Table was bestowed upon Arthur by “la fée de la roche menor” (the fairy of the menhir). Many of his knights too, such as Gawain and Lancelot, have fairy origins: Lancelot, for example, is raised by the mere maid the Lady of the Lake. Moreover, the time of Arthur’s rule came to be seen as one especially favourable to the fairy presence in Britain, during which, far and wide, they danced openly on heaths and greens (e.g. John Dryden, The wife of Bath- her tale; Thomas Parnell (1679-1718), A fairy tale).
The conjunction of fairy stories and Arthurian myths remains compelling to us now because it combines magic and mystery along with a promise of redemption and restoration. The once and future king will return from Faery to assist us in our greatest struggle and to ensure our salvation.
I’ll close with a brief mention of one or two other candidates for the throne. I have before mentioned Welsh fairy king Gwyn ap Nudd, who was said to hold court under Glastonbury Tor and who ruled over the tylwyth teg. According to the Welsh Triads, Gwyn has great knowledge about the nature and qualities of the stars and can predict the future from them.
Very much less well known is the mysterious King Eveling of Ravenglass in Cumbria. He was said to hold court at Lyon’s Yards, the ruined Roman bath-house that stands near the small seaside town, but other than that little is known of him. This fairy king is an intriguing figure because of his mythological connections: his name may very well be connected to Avalloc, putative ruler of the island of Avalon; both have some connection to Evelake, King of Sarras, found in the later French romances of Arthur. He was, then, a significant figure at one time, but almost all details of him have been lost, in addition to which both he and Gwyn have been eclipsed first by Arthur and then by Oberon.
Gwyn ap Nudd by Thalia Took
An edited and expanded version of this post will be found in my books Who’s Who in Faeryland and Fayerie- Fairies and Fairyland in Tudor and Stuart Verse. See my books page for more information.